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1  B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
2  Rao, B.K.Ramachandra (I90)
 
3
Account Journal of B.K.Ramachandra Rao

This is a copy of the diary, in fact an Account Journal, maintained by B.K.Ramachandra Rao. It covers a brief period of four months; Dec 1909, Jan, Feb, and Mar 1910. The rest of the pages (9-108) of the numbered journal were later used by Ramachandra Rao's younger brother B.K.Manjunathayya. Manjunathayya's entry begins in Dec 1911 and is carried through Jan 1924 . It covers latter's entire education from II Form through completion of Engineering - a period from adolescence through young adulthood.

It is not clear what was Ramachandra Rao's age when he began maintaining the journal. It is possible that he had just completed his Overseer or Upper Subordinate course in Civil Engineering from Guindy Engineering College, Madras. And possibly it was his first job when he started keeping an account of his income and expenditure. The fact that he shows no income in December (in fact a sum of Rs 100 is shown as borrowed), and the first salary (Rs 97-14-8, then Indian currency) is an entry dated 17.1.1910, with an additional note by him that states "Till salary was received, managed by borrowing", possibly corroborates the assumption that it it was Ramachandra Rao's first job.

Some of the entries in the journal are noteworthy and deserve attention. For example on 26-12-1909 he spent Rs 132 buying a Singer Challenge Bicycle. Back then British bicycle manufacturer, Singer & Co. of Coventry, England, was one of the most-innovative and largest bicycles manufactures in the world. They manufactured both "highwheel" (large front wheel) as well as traditional bicycles with both wheels of same size. There is nothing to show that Ramachandra Rao purchased the highwheel bicycle. If this purchase was indeed his first big investment, he probably lived a life of relative affluence.

Ramachandra Rao's entries of Feb 1910 is again interesting. On first Feb an expenditure of Rs 24-4-0 is shown as "Money sent for giving Scholarship". It is not clear what scholarship or for whom the money was sent.

Entry dated Feb 11, 1910 shows "Money order to the tune of Rs 25 to the elder brother towards Manjunathayya's education expense at Mangalore". Diary maintained by Manjunathayya confirms that his education from II Form through completion of Engineering was almost entirely supported by Ramachandra Rao.

 
Rao, B.K.Ramachandra (I90)
 
4 Click here to view biographical sketch
Ishwarayya (I370)
 
5 Click here to view biographical sketch
Raosaheb K.Krishnaiah (I1377)
 
6
 
B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
7 B.K.Manjunathayya's Account Journal: :

B.K.Manjunathayya's entire education from II Form through studies in Guindy Engineering College, Madras, was supported by his elder brother, B.K.Ramachandra Rao. The latter was then working as an Engineer in Madras P.W.D. The monthly sum amounted to about Rs 25. Manjunathayya kept a meticulous record of the money received and the details of the expenditure. Money was considered as borrowed and perhaps it is a reflection of the times that he had to execute a bond to cover the amount owed to his brother. There is no evidence that this money was ever demanded or returned to his brother.

The accounting journal maintained by Manjunathayya is detailed, fascinating and quite revealing. It covers major expenses such as messing, school fees, text books, sari to mother, train charges to Bekal, as well as trivial ones like tips to postman, pins and blotting paper etc. The first entries, in Kannada, are for the month of Dec 1911when Manjunathayya was perhaps in II Form, studying at St. Aloysius' College High School, Mangalore. June 1913 onwards the journal is maintained in English. In June of 1917, his eldest brother Mallikarjunayya's son, Sanjiva joined him for the studies beginning in III Class. B.K.Ramachandra Rao paid for Sanjiva's education as well.

May 1919 entries summarize the total expenses during the education days in Mangalore. They show that Manjunathayya spent Rs 513 for his entire High School Classes and another Rs 447 for the College. Sanjiva's education for three classes from III Class to I Form cost a total of Rs 235. Total for two of them was Rs 1195.

Entries on page 94 show that Manjunathayya joined Engineering College on 9 July 1919, with Rs 175 advanced by his brother and Rs 50 by his father. Although not a degree course, contrary to our belief, the studies lasted four years. The first two years were termed P.S.i and P.S.ii and later two years U.S.i and U.S.ii. This was followed by one year practical course.

 
B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
8 Biographical Sketch of B.K.Manjunathayya Based on His Memoir: :

B..K.Manjunathayya was born on August 16, 1897 at Bekal, Kerala State (then Madras Presidency), India to B.K.Mallikarjunayya and Ramarsi. He had his early education at Bekal and Kasaragod, before joining St. Aloysius' College High School, Mangalore, for IV class in 1908. He found studies difficult as the subjects were all in English, but with the help from his cousin Annappayya steadily improved. From 1911 there was a significant improvement in the grades, winning several awards ultimately winning General Proficiency Prize in 1914. On failing to complete Intermediate examination he joined Guindy Engineering College, Madras for a four year Upper Subordinate Course in Civil Engineering. He performed very well in Engineering, standing 3rd and 4th in 1919, and 1921 exams. He received the Mangalore Jubilee Scholarship while in Engineering.

After a brief stint in M.S.M. Railway, Manjunathayya joined Madras P.W.D as a Supervisor in Sept 19276 at Srivilliputhur. In Dec 1928 joined P.W.D. Ceylon (present day Sri Lanka) only to return within three months after falling sick. He rejoined Madras P.W.D., worked at several places, got promoted in 1942(?) as Assistant Engineer and finally got posted to Mangalore in March 1947. He retired in March 1953. For a short period in 1954 he served as an Honorary Magistrate, Mangalore, his proudest moment. Manjunathayya went back to active life working for Central Water and Power Commission in 1955 before finally retiring in April 1956.

Manjunathayya carried a deep respect for people of all faiths. He was not given to rigid religious rituals and did not wear his religion on his sleeves. Among his collection of books were a copy of Bhagvath Gita with his personal notes, Bible, and an old copy of Quran. He took keen interest in the St.Aloysius' College building extension in about 1950-51 and provided engineering consultancy, most probably free of cost, for a group engaged in building a mosque in Ullal about the year 1957.

He was progressive and liberal in his idealogy. He loved his community, and the interest of the younger generation, both boys and girls, in particular their education, was always dear to his heart. Two incidents are worthy of a brief mention: when one young unrelated, perhaps a stranger, student of the community scored what was then record marks in Intermediate examination, Manjunathayya was so thrilled, he sent the young man a personal note of congratulation with a token reward of money. It took several years for this record to be broken. He truly believed in the sermon ?.. but when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth?. At a late stage in life, in Andhra Pradesh, he was known to have provided financial help to a needy but unknown young boy for his studies for some length of time, a fact that he never revealed to his own family. Several years later, it was a close associate in work that shared this information with a family member.


 
B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
9 Biographical Sketch of Subraya Panditha :

People say that everyone is unique in this world. Subraya Panditha was no exception. He was a unique person. Subraya was the eldest son of Thippayya and Venkamma of Kudlu, who cultivated their land to support the family. They had four sons and two daughters. They were Subraya, Parameshwari, Ishwarayya, Somayya, Manjamma and Ramayya.

Subraya was born in Kudlu village in mid 1870s and lived about 77 years before passing away in early 1952. His school education was limited to elementary school in Kudlu. The family got him married early but unfortunately his wife died within a few weeks after the marriage. It looked as if his life was deteriorating from then on. Nothing remarkable was expected of him.

His name is now inscribed on a marble slab, embedded in the front wall of the Chamundeshwari Temple in Kudlu, stating that he founded that sacred place. Please see photographs below.

Kudlu Chamundeshwari Temple
Kudlu Chamundeshwari Temple

Devi Sanctum
Devi Sanctum

Subraya Panditha's Name on the Marble Slab
Subraya Panditha's Name on the Marble Slab

The story of his remarkable life and founding of the Chamundeshwari Temple in Kudlu are interwoven. He was a very handsome man with light brown skin color. He wore onti (shining earrings). He had shining eyes and his hair was white when he was in his sixties. The following is a brief account of his life.

Sometime in 1910, Subraya suddenly got sick. His right arm below the shoulder was swollen and the pain was unbearable. Village doctors (Vaidyas) were unable to help him. Even after six months of sickness, no relief was in sight. Thippayya was frustrated and did not know what to do. A friend advised Thippayya to consult an astrologer, who uncovered the problem. An enemy had invoked a magical spell (Maarana) on Thippayya's family through witchcraft. Unless that magical spell was removed with the help of a Mantravadi Subraya could not get better.

Three different Mantravadis tried to remove that magic spell at different times. It was so powerful that none could remove it. Thippayya then became desperate. The only thing he could do was to pray for God's help. Someone advised him to pray goddess Chamundeshwari and receive her divine grace for the family. That person gave a sacred book titled "Shri Devi Mahatme" and asked Subraya to read that book with utmost devotion.

Every evening, for a period of 12 days, Mandala, colorful hand drawn patterns using rice and turmeric powders, was created on the front courtyard of the ancestral home. An oil lamp was placed in the middle of that Mandala. Subraya sat on the ground in front of the Mandala, supporting his painful swollen right arm on a chair. He read the sacred book until sunrise next morning with deep faith in God and sincere devotion. Subraya's arm got better and the swelling and pain disappeared in 12 days. He was overwhelmed with this divine experience. He was convinced that he recovered because of Devi's divine grace. He wanted to continue the process for a total of 48 days as Mandala worship was normally done for 48 days. The family chose to do only half Mandala (24 days) to cut down the costs.

Shortly after Subraya's total recovery from illness, Thippayya had to handle another similar problem. His youngest son, Ramayya, fainted frequently and went into trance. It required immediate medical attention. Thippayya thought that the magic spell was affecting Ramayya. Again, he sought astrologer's advice. This time he was in for good news from the astrologer. The astrologer informed him that Devi was very pleased with the family for their devotion to her. Her divine grace would protect the family henceforth. Ramayya's fainting episodes were not symptoms of any inherent sickness. It was an indication of Devi's grace on the family. He advised the family to perform Devi worship (pooja) while Ramayya stood there prepared to receive Devi's mystic powers. At the end of the worship, Ramayya would experience mystic trance (Devi Bhava) and would advise the family what to do next.

The worship was performed and Ramayya went into trance as predicted by the astrologer. In the trance state, he confirmed that Devi was very pleased with the family's devotion to her and that they should continue to worship her. This would protect the family from all difficulties. The central room of the ancestral home was converted as the sanctum for Devi's worship. The family continued to worship her at this place until a separate temple was built later.

1n 1915, Thippayya's property in Kudlu was divided among his sons. Ramayya got the ancestral home as his share. The central room of the ancestral home continued to be the sanctum for Devi worship after the partition of the property.

Due to financial difficulties, around 1918, Subraya left Kudlu for Sakleshpur looking for a job. He settled there for the rest of his life. He married again and had a daughter, named Rajivi. He was quite well known in Sakleshpur as a divine healer and a devoted worshipper of Devi. People called him Subraya Panditha. He had immense faith in God. Subraya's house in Sakleshpur became a place for Devi worship. Two oil lamps, each about six feet tall, kept on either sides of the Devi deity, were lit all the time for more than 30 years. He sat, slept and prayed there and frequently got up during night to add oil to those lamps. Lamps which are lit continuously for long periods are called NandaaDeepas.

People suffering from various diseases came to Subraya seeking divine grace and medicine. He did not care much for his life. Once, when many had left Sakleshpur town, fearing the deadly plague, he remained in the town to treat sick people. Local people in Sakleshpur held him in high regard and treated him with respect and reverence. He was a divine healer for them.

In early 1930s, under the divine leadership of Subraya, with unwavering support of his three brothers and the financial support of the family and the public, the construction of the Chamundeshwari temple was started. Construction was completed and the temple was consecrated in the month of June 1933. 1n 1994, the temple was renovated and the purification ceremony (Brahmakalasha) was performed.

Subraya and Rajivi came to Kudlu every year for the Navarathri worship and stayed with his brother Ishwarayya for about 10 days. Ishwarayya and Ramayya treated him with great respect and love and did whatever he wished to do. He spent all his time in the temple and was conspicuous among hundreds of devotees coming to the temple. He looked very saintly and venerable to them and they sought his blessings.

During the nine days of Navarathri, he restricted his food intake. Every day he had only a cup of coffee, a bowl of green gram and jiggery syrup and a cup of boiled milk. He resumed his regular food only after the 10th day of Navarathri.

Subraya performed several religious celebrations including Ramanavami in Sakleshpur. Around 1943, Subraya came to Kudlu especially to perform for the first time Ramanavami worship in Chamundeshwari temple. The worship was done for nine days (day and night). Each day Rama was worshipped. During each night the idol of Rama was placed on a palanquin. Devotees carried the palanquin on their shoulders and took it in a religious procession for a couple of hours in Kudlu. Several others joined the procession every night and sang Bhajans along the route. Many large herds of monkeys suddenly appeared and invaded many fruit gardens in Kudlu village a few days after the Ramanavami worship. Until then, herds of monkeys were not seen in Kudlu. People were upset because those monkeys destroyed their vegetable and coconut gardens. Someone in Kudlu mentioned that a few days after the conclusion of Ramanavami worship, a group of monkeys marched along the route on which the palanquin procession was held.

Could it be that the monkeys came to Kudlu because of the Ramanavami worship? Subraya certainly thought so and his joy knew no bounds. He believed that Rama's presence had come to Kudlu as evidenced by the presence of the monkeys. For nearly six years, those monkeys stayed in Kudlu. They disappeared from Kudlu within a short period after the Ramanavami worship was terminated in Kudlu due to financial difficulties.

Sometime in 1952, he fell seriously ill. A few days before falling sick, Subraya had noticed that the two NandaaDeepas, which were continuously lit for nearly thirty years in his house, simultaneously got extinguished. He told his daughter Rajivi then that it was a divine premonition of his life ending soon.

He was brought to his brother Ishwarayya's house in Kudlu. He wanted to be close to the temple he founded when he died.

 
Subraya (I368)
 
10 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5)
 
11 A test.. Works fine.. B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
12 Although not a degree course, contrary to our belief, the studies lasted four years. The first two years were termed P.S.i and P.S.ii and later two years U.S.i and U.S.ii. This was followed by one year practical course. B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
13 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5192)
 
14 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F549
 
15 Born in Kudlu, near Kasaragod. Subraya (I368)
 
16 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1961
 
17 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2400)
 
18 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I563)
 
19 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1984
 
20 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F2003
 
21 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1970
 
22 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F548
 
23 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F2005
 
24 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F18
 
25 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1974
 
26 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1978
 
27 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1968
 
28 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1954
 
29 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1952
 
30 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1958
 
31 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1950
 
32 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1956
 
33 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1960
 
34 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1966
 
35 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1948
 
36 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1982
 
37 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1997
 
38 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1976
 
39 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1990
 
40 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F119
 
41 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1903
 
42 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5135)
 
43 No records of marriage available. Most probably it took place at Kasaragod, Kerala State, India Family F1
 
44 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1980
 
45 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5167)
 
46 The house was purchased in Dec 1956 from Dr.Castellino B.K.Manjunathayya (I1)
 
47 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I5)
 
48 Venkatesh hails from Kumta. Hospattankar, Venkatesh G. (I5243)
 
49 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1987
 
50 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Family F1993
 

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